Pagina 14 di 14 primaprima ... 4121314
Visualizzazione dei risultati da 326 a 341 su 341

Discussione: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

  1. #326
    Junior Member
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Linate delenda est²
    Messaggi
    400

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    http://www.rsi.ch/news/svizzera/Swis...-7765739.html#

    Swiss, rientrano due aerei
    I velivoli della compagnia elvetica hanno fatto ritorno a Zurigo per due distinti problemi tecnici

    Un Airbus A330 della compagnia Swiss con 233 passeggeri a bordo, decollato lunedì sera alle 17.45 da Zurigo alla volta di New York, ha dovuto fare ritorno all'aeroporto di partenza a causa di un problema a un propulsore. Mentre il velivolo stava volando sopra l'Irlanda, il personale di cabina ha notato un consumo eccessivo di olio in uno dai reattori. Per motivi di sicurezza, il pilota ha deciso invertire la marcia e fare ritorno all'aeroporto di Zurigo.

    L'Airbus è atterrato a Kloten (ZH) alle 22.15. Dai controlli effettuati non sono emerse perdite di olio dal reattore. Né i passeggeri né i membri dell’equipaggio hanno subito conseguenze negative.

    Un secondo inconveniente tecnico, in questo caso all’impianto di aerazione, ha costretto il nuovo Bombardier CS100 della compagnia nazionale a rientrare a Kloten, martedì in mattinata mentre era in volo verso Manchester. Pure in questo secondo evento non ci sono stati problemi per i 65 passeggeri a bordo né per i membri dell’equipaggio.

    ATS/Swing
    Moratti 22/02/09:"Se si limita Linate, Milano sarebbe scollegata dal resto dell'Italia, è Alitalia che vuole ridurre Linate a Milano-Roma, ma per carità, ma non possiamo, gli altri da dove vengono? con cosa vengono? con i pattini? non so!"

  2. #327
    Senior Member L'avatar di TW 843
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Ormeggiatore di aliscafi
    Messaggi
    28,297

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Altri 490 milioni di perdita nel Q2...



    Canada's Bombardier Reports Bigger-Than-Expected Loss

    Reuters.com/TheGlobeandMail.com
    Posted: 08.05.16
    Canadian plane and train maker Bombardier Inc reported a slightly bigger-than-expected quarterly loss as it delivered fewer business jets and margins were negative in its commercial aircraft division, which includes CSeries jets.

    Revenue in the company's business jets division declined nearly 19 percent in the second quarter. The business, a key source of cash flow for Bombardier, accounted for more than a third of total revenue.

    Revenue from its commercial jets business rose more than a quarter, but margins weakened further as the company spends heavily on its CSeries aircraft program.

    In February, Bombardier received an order from Air Canada for its CSeries jets, the first contract for the aircraft in nearly a year and a half.

    The Canadian company's free cash flow usage dropped to $490 million in the quarter from $808 million a year earlier. Bombardier had $3.34 billion in cash and equivalents at the end of June.

    Bombardier, which has secured $1 billion investment for the program from the Quebec government, is in talks with Canada's federal government for further investment.

    However, Brazil's Embraer SA, whose E-Jets compete with CSeries aircraft, has threatened to challenge the state funding, saying that any such investment will give Bombardier an unfair competitive advantage.

    Embraer said last week that it expected to sell 10 less executive jets this year than previously estimated as demand weakens globally and competition intensifies.

    Bombardier reported a net loss of $490 million, or 24 cents per share for the quarter ended June 30. A year earlier, it had a profit of $125 million, or 6 cents per share.

    Excluding items, the company reported a loss of 6 cents, bigger than the 5 cents analysts on average had expected, according to Thomson Reuters I/B/E/S.

    Revenue fell 6.7 percent to $4.31 billion.

    Chief executive Alain Bellemare is mounting a five-year turnaround plan for the company that has included resetting business jet production to better match demand and shoring up liquidity with investments from the Quebec government and pension fund Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. The goal is to rebuild earnings and cash flow by selling newly developed C Series airliners and Global 7000 luxury jets and start reducing debt by 2019.

    It won’t be an easy path.

    Demand for corporate aircraft like the Globals and Challengers Bombardier sells is sputtering and because the planes represent the company’s most profitable products, that will hurt the balance sheet. Bombardier said it delivered 42 business jets in the second quarter, down from 47 the year before, and booked 30 new orders.

    “We have not seen or heard much to make us more optimistic” on luxury aircraft sales, J.P. Morgan analyst Seth Seifman said in his monthly review of business jets for July. He expects Bombardier to cut production of the aircraft by a further 10 per cent in 2017.

    The C Series, Bombardier’s largest ever plane with maximum seating for 160 people, also represents a challenge in the years ahead. Although the jet is gaining traction in the marketplace with key customers like Delta, more orders at higher transaction prices per plane are needed for the company to begin seeing a return from its investment.

    The aircraft entered commercial service last month with Swiss, some two and a half years after its original schedule. The total projected cost for the program has ballooned out to $5.4-billion.

    The fundamental question for the program is: How much value will customers attach to the many innovations the airplane brings, ICF International aerospace industry consultant Kevin Michaels wrote in a recent opinion piece on the C Series. Among those innovations are an aluminum-lithium fuselage, which is lighter than conventional aluminum and better resists corrosion.

    “Bombardier needs to pivot from strategic to sustainable pricing sooner rather than later,” Mr. Michaels said. “Its financial health is much improved under Alain Bellemare’s leadership and with government investment, but it is not out of the woods – particularly with intense competition and a softening business jet market.”

    Bombardier said it had $4.9-billion in liquidity available as of June 30. It said it remained on track to meet previous full-year guidance of between $16.5-billion and $17.5-billion in revenue and earnings before interest and taxes of between $200-million and $400-million. It expects to use up between $1-billion and $1.3-billion in cash this year.

  3. #328
    Junior Member
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Linate delenda est²
    Messaggi
    400

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    http://airnation.net/2016/08/25/bomb...5q8eLA.twitter

    Bombardier Inc’s CSeries showing ‘much higher’ reliability than competitors, Swiss Air Lines says

    August 25, 2016 by AirnationCrew Leave a Comment

    The first airline to fly Bombardier Inc.’s CSeries says the jetliner has been significantly more reliable in its first month of operation than other aircraft built by its competitors.

    An aircraft’s dependability is often measured by its dispatch reliability, or the percentage of flights that depart on time. Swiss International Air Lines Ltd., which offered the first-ever CSeries commercial flight on July 15, said the aircraft is performing better than some Boeing Co. and Airbus Group SE jets did during their first few weeks in operation.

    “The dispatch reliability of the first aircraft has already reached a high value, much higher than in comparison with the dispatch reliability of other new aircraft types during phase-in,” Swiss spokeswoman Karin Muller said in an email, pointing specifically to Airbus’s A380 and A320neo and Boeing’s 787.

    She added that the CSeries’ dispatch reliability has not yet reached the desired level of 99 per cent, but Swiss won’t release more detailed numbers until at least five aircraft have been in operation for at least three months.

    Swiss now has two CS100 aircraft in operation after the second one entered service last week. The airline has placed a firm order for 15 CS100s and 15 of the larger-variety CS300s.

    The CSeries experienced some minor glitches in its first week of operation. The very first flight, from Zurich to Paris, was delayed by an hour when airport ramp staff disconnected a ground power cable too soon, forcing a power restart.

    Four days later, a flight from Zurich to Manchester, U.K., turned back after the plane experienced a problem with its air-conditioning system.

    Muller described these as “small technical and operational issues” that didn’t hurt the phase-in process.

    “With our daily experience and the support by Bombardier on-site, these issues and insecurities regarding the handling have already noticeably decreased,” she said.

    The feedback from our pilots is gratifying. They especially like the intuitive flying experience. Swiss has also experienced some minor cabin design issues that it is addressing with Bombardier and which may delay delivery of the next aircraft by “a few weeks,” but overall the experience has been encouraging, Muller added.

    “The customer feedback is very positive with the expected remarks concerning the bright cabin, reduced noise, enough leg room and space for hand luggage as well as the comfortable seats,” she said. “Also the feedback from our pilots is gratifying. They especially like the intuitive flying experience.”

    Earlier this month, Bombardier CEO Alain Bellemare described the feedback from Swiss and its passengers as “outstanding.”

    The positive reception has been a relief for the company, which had struggled with delays, cost overruns and serious doubts about demand for the aircraft. Recent orders from Air Canada and Delta Air Lines Inc. have helped to ease those concerns.

    The larger CS300 version of the jetliner was certified by Transport Canada in July and is expected to enter service with Air Baltic Corp. by the end of the year.

  4. #329
    Senior Member L'avatar di TW 843
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Ormeggiatore di aliscafi
    Messaggi
    28,297

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Bombardier Slashes 2016 C Series Delivery Forecast

    TheGlobeandMail.com
    Posted: 09.06.16

    Bombardier Inc. is scaling back its delivery forecast for its new C Series planes to 7 from 15 for the year as a result of engine-delivery delays by supplier Pratt & Whitney.

    As a result of the halving of its delivery forecast for the C Series, Montreal-based Bombardier said it now anticipates being closer to the lower end of its $16.5-billion to $17.5-billion (U.S.) revenue guidance range for the year.

    The free cash flow use guidance range has been adjusted to between $1.15-billion and $1.45-billion from $1-billion to $1.3-billion.

    No reasons were provided for the engine delivery delay.

    “The C Series engine is performing very well in service. We are working very closely with Pratt & Whitney to quickly address this supplier ramp-up issue and to ensure we have a strong supplier base to support our long-term growth objectives,” Bombardier Commercial Aircraft president Fred Cromer said.

    Bombardier said it has more than 300 firm orders and up to 800 orders including options and commitments for the C Series jetliner.

    The company also said on Tuesday it expects to end the year with a “strong liquidity position and remains on track to achieve both its 2018 cash flow neutral goal and its 2020 turn-around plan objectives.”

  5. #330
    Senior Member L'avatar di TW 843
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Ormeggiatore di aliscafi
    Messaggi
    28,297

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Bombardier Declines on Outlook for C Series and Business Jets

    Bloomberg.com
    Posted: 09.20.16

    Bombardier Inc. dropped to a five-month low on anxiety over cutbacks in the business-plane unit and additional delays to the production ramp-up of the C Series jetliner.

    “Investors are concerned about another potential production cut in 2017, particularly for the Global 5000/6000 models, which carry the highest margins in Bombardier’s business-jet portfolio,” Konark Gupta, a Macquarie Capital Markets analyst, said in a note to clients.

    The possibility that the Global 7000 could enter service later than planned also weighed on the stock. The Montreal-based planemaker has said that deliveries of the business jet would begin in 2018.

    A supplier has been struggling with “the wing of the 7000, which will be a profitable product,” said Cai Von Rumohr, a Cowen & Co. analyst. “The target is to start delivering it in 2018, and that could be an issue.”

    Shareholders also are worried about potential slippage in planned deliveries of the C Series, Gupta said. Pratt & Whitney on Friday cut the 2016 target for shipments of its new geared-turbofan engine, which the C Series uses, as it grapples with production issues. Bombardier previously slashed the delivery forecast for C Series aircraft to seven this year from 15, citing delays in receiving turbines from the United Technologies Corp. unit.

    Bombardier’s widely traded Class B stock tumbled 5.1 percent to C$1.66 at 2:57 p.m. in Toronto. The shares earlier touched C$1.61, their lowest level since April 19. Bombardier fell Friday and Monday.

    Mike Nadolski, a Bombardier spokesman, didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment.

  6. #331
    Junior Member
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Linate delenda est²
    Messaggi
    400

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) has awarded type validation to the Bombardier C Series CS300, the Canadian manufacturer announced Friday. The approval comes less than three months after Transport Canada certified Bombardier’s largest airplane and nine months after the Canadian authority granted certification for the smaller CS100. The CS100 entered service with Swiss International Airlines in mid-July. CS300 launch operator Air Baltic of Latvia plans to take its first C Series jet in the fourth quarter.

    “EASA's approval of our CS300 aircraft, as per schedule, recognizes the significant contribution of our highly skilled engineers and technical experts in the development and testing of the best-in-class C Series aircraft,” said François Caza, Bombardier vice president for product development and chief engineer and head of the company’s design approval organization. “We fully expect that the CS300 aircraft's upcoming delivery and entry-into-service with Air Baltic will be as successful as for the CS100 aircraft with Swiss.”

    Late last month Bombardier and Air Baltic began route-proving flights with the second CS300 flight-test vehicle, taking the airplane from the airline’s Riga hub to destinations such Vilnius, Lithuania and Tallinn, Estonia, as well as Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates to simulate revenue operations.

    Holding an order for 20 CS300s, Air Baltic plans to gradually move to an all-Bombardier fleet, which now includes 12 Q400 turboprops.

    http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-ne...-wins-easa-nod
    Moratti 22/02/09:"Se si limita Linate, Milano sarebbe scollegata dal resto dell'Italia, è Alitalia che vuole ridurre Linate a Milano-Roma, ma per carità, ma non possiamo, gli altri da dove vengono? con cosa vengono? con i pattini? non so!"

  7. #332
    Senior Member L'avatar di TW 843
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Ormeggiatore di aliscafi
    Messaggi
    28,297

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Bombardier to Cut 7,500 Jobs Through 2018

    Reuters.com
    Posted: 10.21.16
    Canadian plane and train maker Bombardier will shed jobs for the second time this year, cutting about 10 percent of its global workforce over two years as it deepens turnaround efforts at its rail division.

    The Montreal-based company, which has struggled in recent years with cost overruns in its aerospace unit, said on Friday it will cut about 7,500 jobs globally with about two-thirds of those in Bombardier Transportation. The rest of the cuts will be made in the aerospace division.

    It said restructuring charges of $225 million to $275 million will be accrued as special items, beginning in the fourth quarter and through 2017.

    "We understand these are difficult decisions ... but in the end what we are going to be left with is a leaner, stronger organization," Bombardier Chief Executive Alain Bellemare said in an interview adding the moves were part of a broad turnaround plan, aimed at improving operations amid cost and productivity concerns.

    Bombardier said it expects recurring savings of about $300 million by the end of 2018.

    In February, the company cut 10 percent of its workforce, also over two years, and with nearly half of the cuts in its rail arm, which has a large workforce in Europe.

    ... Bellemare said he did not expect the job cuts, which include 2,000 workers in Canada including 1,500 in Quebec, would impact the company's separate talks with the federal government over a $1 billion investment in the CSeries.

    Ottawa is under pressure from the Quebec government, which last year invested $1 billion in the CSeries program for a nearly 50 percent stake in the project, to match that investment.

    To see Bombardier news release, go to:
    http://www.marketwired.com/press-rel....a-2168724.htm

  8. #333
    Socio 2015
    Registrato dal
    Oct 2006
    residenza
    Londra.
    Messaggi
    12,345

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    CS300 and CS100 awarded common type rating

    The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and Transport Canada have awarded both variants of the Bombardier CSeries a common type rating.
    The rating reflects high commonality between the CS100 and CS300, and will provide operators with significant
    cost savings, says Bombardier.
    There will also be minimal training to transition pilots from one aircraft model to the other. Six Air Baltic pilots have since completed their differences training and are now qualified to fly the CS300.
    Commonality between the two variants also extends to spare parts, maintenance procedures and ground handling, it adds. This is since both jets feature over 99% parts commonality, with only the centre section being longer on the larger CS300.
    The CS300 is expected to enter into service with the Latvian carrier later this year. Air Baltic has 20 CS300s on order.

    https://www.flightglobal.com/news/ar...rating-431777/

  9. #334
    Moderatore L'avatar di I-DAVE
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    vicino al Soviet di Pirelligrad, dove chi critica è presentuoso
    Messaggi
    9,298

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Bombardier ha appena consegnato il primo CS300 ad Air Baltic; il prossimo 14 dicembre vi sarà il primo revenue flight con la compagnia lettone, da Riga ad Amsterdam.

    In questo momento si sta tenendo una cerimonia a Montreal con dipendenti Bombardier, personale Air Baltic e stampa:



    Altre foto sul profilo Twitter di Bombardier: https://twitter.com/BBD_Aircraft

    DaV

  10. #335

    Predefinito Re: News Bombardier CSeries

    Bello che è. Mi è sempre piaciuto. Bella anche la rivisitazione della livrea BT. Peccato l'argento sparito dai motori.

  11. #336
    Socio 2015
    Registrato dal
    Oct 2006
    residenza
    Londra.
    Messaggi
    12,345

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Secondo Bombardier i CSeries sembra performino meglio del previsto.

    Bombardier: CSeries aircraft performing better than expected

    Bombardier said it will increase the formal specifications for the CSeries CS300, as the aircraft’s per seat and trip costs have already proven 2% better than its original brochure values.
    “Within six months we’ve got a two-member family into revenue service. That’s never been done before,” Bombardier president commercial aircraft Fred Cromer said last week at the CS300’s unveiling with Latvian launch customer airBaltic.
    Bombardier VP-CSeries aircraft program Robert Dewar said it has been a “long and challenging” process, but both the CS100 and CS300 are performing above their original specifications. The Canadian manufacturer has already revised the book values for the CS100 and is now planning to do the same for the larger CS300.
    “The range [of the CS300] will be increased. It is approximately 2% better than we currently have in the operating manuals,” Dewar said. “Against anything published today in a brochure, it will be an approximate 2% improvement on those [per seat and trip cost] numbers.”
    Despite already exceeding expectations, Cromer said Bombardier is still seeking further efficiencies. “At this stage, manufacturers are typically trying to get weight out to meet their performance and fuel burn targets. The CSeries is unique in that it meets and exceeds specifications at entry into service. But we are not going to sit back and rest upon the performance of the aircraft today; we think there is potential to have even better performance. The potential is phenomenal as we continue to get more experience of the aircraft in operation.”
    Bombardier is also seeking production efficiencies, as it ramps up from seven CSeries deliveries in 2016 to 30-35 aircraft in 2017. The program has been partly delayed by engine supply issues, but Dewar is optimistic the revised schedule will still be met.
    “We have a plan to achieve that [delivery] target and we have all the confidence in the world that Pratt & Whitney will do it. It is a supply issue, not a technical problem,” he said.
    When quizzed on the start issues experienced on the geared turbofan (GTF) engine, executives said that is “behind us.” The CSeries went through its engine testing earlier than the Airbus A320neo and the executives said the CSeries’ 90-second start time is in line with the rest of the industry.
    The team was also asked about whether a larger CSeries could be in the pipeline. Cromer confirmed Bombardier is always “thinking of options,” but added “our focus now is the CS100 and CS300. Let’s not get ahead of ourselves.”
    Likewise, the manufacturer has no plans to revisit the idea of a larger Q400 turboprop variant at this time. “We will see how the market evolves, but we are pretty happy with the Q400 as it stands today,” Cromer said.
    With the CS100 and CS300 entry into service, Cromer said Bombardier is getting more interest in the aircraft. The next customer to go live will be Korean Air, which is scheduled to receive its first CSeries in mid-2017.
    http://atwonline.com/manufacturers/b...etter-expected

  12. #337
    Socio 2015
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Berlino
    Messaggi
    886

    Predefinito Re: News Bombardier CSeries

    Simpatico video promozionale di BT per il nuovo arrivato: https://youtu.be/3DfX_auflQ4

  13. #338
    Socio 2015
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2006
    residenza
    ROMA, Lazio.
    Messaggi
    6,892

    Predefinito Re: News Bombardier CSeries

    Quote Originariamente inviato da venexiano Visualizza il messaggio
    Simpatico video promozionale di BT per il nuovo arrivato: https://youtu.be/3DfX_auflQ4
    Molto carino.Roma Radar
    cl

  14. #339
    Member L'avatar di Alfly727
    Registrato dal
    Jul 2007
    residenza
    Prato, Toscana.
    Messaggi
    1,354

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Intanto oggi giornata di test per Swiss a FLR.

    Clicca sull'immagine per ingrandirla. 

Nome:   DSC_0179.jpg 
Visite: 64 
Dimensione: 7.22 MB 
ID: 9259

  15. #340
    Senior Member L'avatar di TW 843
    Registrato dal
    Nov 2005
    residenza
    Ormeggiatore di aliscafi
    Messaggi
    28,297

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    Bombardier faces public backlash over executive pay raises


    aerotime.aero
    Bombardier is facing public anger over the significant pay raise provided to top-level executives, which coincided with layoffs affecting thousands of the company’s workers worldwide. The total pay of Canadian aircraft and train manufacturer’s top 5 executives and CEO rose to $32.7 million in 2016, compared to $21.9 million in 2015, according to a proxy circular distributed prior to the company’s annual meeting scheduled for the 11th of May, as reported by Reuters.
    Last year, the plane maker had announced two series of layoffs directly affecting more than 14,000 people around the globe.
    Canada’s Economy Minister Dominique Anglade advised the company to reflect on the backlash it received from the public after a social media storm caused by the pay raises.
    Bombardier spokesperson Simon Letendre commented that higher renumeration is directly linked to the management’s success in achieving corporate targets for 2016, with the raises for the most part being dependent on performance and share prices.
    “We respect the free market and choices companies will make,” Canada’s PM Justin Trudeau spoke publicly in Brampton, Ontario, commenting on the issue. “We also have a responsibility to ensure the investments we make with taxpayers’ dollars are leading to good jobs and growth.”
    Bombardier which was on the brink of bankruptcy in 2015 received a $1 billion investment from the Quebec government in its CSeries aircraft. A loan package of $279 million for Bombardier's CSeries and Global 7000 aircraft programs was announced by the Canadian government in February.

  16. #341
    Socio 2015
    Registrato dal
    Oct 2006
    residenza
    Londra.
    Messaggi
    12,345

    Predefinito Re: Bombardier CSeries: a che punto siamo?

    FG
    CS100 earns steep approach approval at London City

    Swiss is cleared to operate a steep approach into London City airport with Bombardier CS100 jets after the manufacturer received Transport Canada and European Aviation Safety Agency approvals on 26 April.

    The CS100 will replace Swiss' fleet of BAE Systems 146 regional jets operating to London City from Geneva and Zurich, becoming one of the largest aircraft behind the Airbus A318 to operate in the heavily restricted approach path to the urban centre runway.

    The London airport requires aircraft to descend at an approach angle of 5.5 degrees, or nearly twice as steep as a normal glideslope to land for a passenger-carrying transport.

    Bombardier tweaked the CS100 flight controls, engine and de-icing system to enable the steep approach certification.

    The first step requires the crew to select the London City approach option in the flight management system, says Chuck Ellis, Bombardier's chief test pilot. As the approach begins, the aircraft's fly-by-wire controls automatically raise a couple of the spoiler panels, increasing the drag.

    The engine is commanded to run a lower idle setting than normal during the approach. Finally, the environmental control system is programmed to deliver more bleed-air from the engine to the de-icing system on the leading edge of the wings, Ellis says.

    Aural and visual alerts on the head-up and flight displays also help the aircrew navigate the steep approach in any weather, he says.

Pagina 14 di 14 primaprima ... 4121314

Informazione discussione

Utenti che visualizzano questa discussione

Ci sono attualmente 1 utenti che visualizzano di questa discussione. (0 utenti 1 ospiti)

Segnalibri

Segnalibri

Permessi di invio

Permessi di invio

  • Non puoi inserire discussioni
  • Non puoi inserire repliche
  • Non puoi inserire allegati
  • Non puoi modificare i tuoi messaggi
  •